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작성자왕회장 조회 4회 작성일 2021-01-13 00:17:51 댓글 0


Mitosis: The Amazing Cell Process that Uses Division to Multiply! (Updated)

Updated Mitosis Video. The Amoeba Sisters walk you through the reason for mitosis with mnemonics for prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Expand details to see table of contents. Video handout here:

Table of Contents:
00:00 Intro
0:44 Why is Mitosis Important?
2:00 Why Don't You Want Cells Dividing all the Time?
2:23 Interphase (occurs before mitosis)
2:55 DNA and Chromosomes
4:07 Chromosome Replication
5:30 PMAT Mitosis Stages
7:30 Cytokinesis (actual splitting of cell)

We appreciate the feedback we get for what we need to clarify or should have added. Here is a clarification (also pinned in comments): (1) We mention mitosis as "a type of cell division." To be specific, it's a division happening within the cell - in the nucleus. But we do not introduce the nucleus until later on in video. Mitosis is specifically the division happening of the nucleus whereas cytokinesis follows to do the actual splitting of the cell (mentioned at 7:30). (2) Our video is intended to focus on animal cells (as drawn) - specifically human cells - as we use human chromosome numbers. We wish we had clarified that more as we appreciate the feedback that the statements, "Mitosis makes body cells. Meiosis makes gametes." has some big exceptions such as plants. (3) In metaphase, we do not draw a nucleus (6:09), because we mention it already has been disassembled. Disassembly of the nuclear membrane (envelope) occurs at the end of the previous stage. Many texts will state this is during prometaphase, a stage in between prophase and metaphase. In this short video, we do not include prometaphase. We only mention that the nucleus is no longer there by the time it's metaphase. (4) Notice our illustration in anaphase also includes a text box that says "sister chromatids separate" at 6:37. It's important to understand that chromosomes are moved "away" in anaphase, but as the text box notes, realize they are separated by the pulling apart of sister chromatids. This is especially important when comparing mitosis to meiosis I---as you can see our comparison video (which has more detail) here:

The Amoeba Sisters videos demystify science with humor and relevance. The videos center on Pinky's certification and experience in teaching biology at the high school level. For more information about The Amoeba Sisters, visit:

We cover the basics in biology concepts at the secondary level. If you are looking to discover more about biology and go into depth beyond these basics, our recommended reference is the FREE, peer reviewed, open source OpenStax biology textbook:


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Mitosis (PMAT) | Cell Division | GCSE Biology (9-1) |

For more videos, self assessed quizzes, and worksheets visit\r
In this video, you will earn this model answer:

During interphase, the DNA replicates and proteins are synthesised.
The first phase of mitosis is prophase. During prophase, the nuclear membrane disappears, the spindle fibres form, and the chromosomes get thicker (condense).
During metaphase which is the second phase of mitosis, the chromosomes line up down the middle of the cell, and the spindle fibres bind the chromosomes.
During anaphase, the spindle fibres pull the chromosomes to the poles of the cell.
During telophase, the last stage of mitosis, two nuclear membranes form around the chromosomes.
During cytokinesis, the membrane splits and reforms to form two daughter cells. \r
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Animation How the Cell Cycle Works




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